IST Issues

• Substituting with the Same Chemical
• Substituting an Entirely New Chemical
• The Chemical Industry Does Not Support Mandatory Reliance on Inherently Safer Technology

Cost Benefit Analysis
IST from a Chemical Company’s Perspective
Water Treatment Facilities
IST Cannot be Imposed

Green Chemistry Program
Encouraging Inherently Safer Technology
Politics and Green Chemistry

Liability Reasons for Supporting IST
Replacing Chlorine with Bleach
Obtaining the Benefits of IST

PIH Tank Car Construction Standards
PIH Tank Car Speed Limit

DOT Looks for IST to Aid Rail Safety
Railroad Accidents Involving Hazardous Materials Releases
The Railroad Industry's Liability

Implementation Can Be Required
Significantly Reduce the Risk
Transfer the Risk to Another Facility
Can be Feasibly Incorporated
Ability to Continue Doing Business in the US

Lack of a Reliable Supply of Bleach 
Cost of Replacement 
Moving the Hazard 
IST Benefit Calculations 

Comprehensive Chemical Security Program 
Public Relations Campaign 

Impetus for Change 
Cost of a UV Treatment System 
Time for Implementation 
Complexities of IST Implementation 

Stand Alone IST 
Limit Application of IST 
IST Evaluations 
Evaluating Evaluations
Moving Forward 

Cost of Site Security Plans 
IST Implementation is Not Inevitable 
Facility Protection During Implementation 
Run IST Review and SVA/SSP in Parallel 

Establish Boundary Conditions 
Technical Feasibility 
Financial Feasibility
Evaluate the Boundary Conditions 

Chemical Process Refinement 
Escape Clause 
Process Research 

IST Standards

Tax Incentives 
Internalize Risk 
Combination Plans

HR 5577 IST Limitations 
Politics Favoring IST 
HR 2477 Dead 

IST Assessment 
Mandated Implementation 
Assessment Evaluation 

Types of IST Assessments 
Known Chemical Replacement 
Inventory Management 
Costs of Assessments 

ISTAT Regulatory Assumptions 
IST Measures 
ISTAT Questions 

IST for All? 
Alternative Terminology 
Mitigation Techniques
More Discussion 

Raw Material or Product 
Dispersed Storage 

Straight Drop-in
Process Drop-in 
Process Change Drop-in
Process Development Drop-in 

Chemical Neutralization 
Physical Neutralization 
100% Efficacy? 

Study to Look at IST 
Public Comments

IST Proponents 
IST Opponents 
NAS IST Study 
Adequate Design 

The Politics of the Study 
Study Design 
The Way Forward

IST Policy Not Addressed
NRC Tasking
Public Participation
Study Results
Following the Study

Two Edged Sword
Levels of Inherently Safer Design
Definition Shortcomings

Bayer IST Study Moving Forward
IST as a Political Issue

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